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Flutter is an open-source mobile application development SDK created by Google. It is used to develop applications for Android and iOS, as well as being the primary method of creating applications for Google Fuchsia.

History

The first version of Flutter was known as "Sky" and ran on the Android operating system. It was unveiled at the 2015 Dart developer summit, with the stated intent of being able to render consistently at 120 frames per second.

Framework Architecture

The major components of Flutter include:

  • Flutter engine
  • Foundation library
  • Design-specific widgets

Flutter engine

Flutter's engine, written primarily in C++, provides low-level rendering support using Google's Skia graphics library. Additionally, it interfaces with platform-specific SDKssuch as those provided by Android and iOS.

Foundation library

The Foundation library, written in Dart, provides basic classes and functions which are used to construct applications using Flutter, such as APIs to communicate with the engine.

Widgets

UI design in Flutter involves assembling and/or creating various widgets. A widget in Flutter represents an immutable description of part of the user interface; all graphics, including text, shapes, and animations are created using widgets. More complex widgets can be created by combining many simpler ones.

Design-specific widgets

The Flutter framework contains two sets of widgets which conform to specific design languages. Material Design widgets implement Google's design language of the same name, and Cupertino widgets imitate Apple's iOS design.